Jumat, 11 Mei 2012

Contoh Seminar Proposal


THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY, STUDENTS’ GRAMMAR MASTERING PHRASE FORMATION WITH STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION TO ANALYZE
OF PHRASEIN DISCRIPTIVE TEXT IN THE TENTH
CLASS OF SMA STATE 2 OF METRO
ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012

(Undergraduate Thesis Proposal)

UM

BY
SISKAN HASBID
SRN 09340827



MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF METRO
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
2012

















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1  Problem Background
Education is one of the important aspects in our life and so as the mother of all profession or work. With have education process can be someone better condition in their life. A lot of variants of education, for example is education language that English language. The reason why we must know about English language is that because English is international language which used by people in the word and then it is the second language for the learner. English is an international language. Almost all countries have adapted English used as a compulsory subject at schools. The national education has decided that English as a foreign language taught in Indonesian schools. It learned started from primary schools up to university. People realize that teaching English at this level becomes very important and need much concern. As an English teacher, he or she demands to explore effective techniques, method, and approaches. So, if want can speak English well, so that the firstly must study about it. There are three components of English education learning: vocabulary, phonology and structure/ grammar. And so the learner must study the basic skills in English language that is, listening, speaking, reading and writing. The all basic and component can be separated, because of that the learner can master English well.

In learning process of course there are problem. Especially for Senior High School will hoped can get informational step because they to ready for continued their education to in university or the education program.It is true that it might be impossible to learn a language without mastering vocabulary.Vocabulary is one of the problems confronted by English language learners. Because of the limited vocabulary, the learners cannot communicate to others clearly or write something well. Sometimes it is difficult to group the idea transmitted to them. The acquisition of a large number of vocabularies can help the students read, speak, listen, and write. A good vocabulary and ability to use words correctly and effectively can help the students make school work easier and more rewarding, and also many tests that they take in school include vocabulary questions. The more vocabularies they know the better their chance to do well on an English test.
Like (Wells, 1987) said that ininformational step one can acses about knowledge with language ability, than in epistemic step one can be able to said knowledge into language learning.
Actually, in learning process there are many problems which very influence in student’s ability or knowledge and the learning result. firstly, Students got difficult to listen about english sentences. secondly, student are still difficult to speak english hith others people and still confuse to relized speak english well. The last, students are not confident and understanding to english structure/ grammar in conjuction mastery. So, they. Students  are still confuse about how to make complex sentences in discriptive text.



Table 1.1. presentase of student’s vocabulary mastery, grammar mastering phrase formation and student’s reading ability.

No
Category
Presentage (%)
Vacabulary Mastery
Grammar mastery
Reading comprehension
1
Excellent
15
10
5
2
Good
15
15
10
3
Fair
20
30
25
4
Low
50
45
50
Total
100 %
100 %
100 %

Sources: The result of student’s test of the second semester in the tenth class of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2009/2010.

Explanation table is there are four category of percentage subject learning comprehension with severally percent. Based on the pre-survey data above, there are many students got low score especially in grammar phrase formation. In vocabulary mastery from all students, 50% students still low and same condition in reading comprehension. So, researcher wants to know whether there is any correlation between’s student mastery in grammar phrase formation though descriptive text.


1.2 Problem identification
Based on the table, it shows reesult learning that;
1)      Students do not have many vocabulary.
2)      Students are not confident and understanding to english structure/ grammar in conjuction mastery.
3)       Students  are still confuse about how to make complex sentence in discriptive text.
4)      Students got difficult to listen about english sentences.
5)      Students are not confident and understanding to english structure/ grammar mastering phrase formation.
6)      Students got difficult about reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.
Finaly, they still difficult for relized to speaking, listening, writing and reading english well.

1.3 Problem Limitation
Based on problem identification there are many which must to clear, it isnecessary for the writer to limit the problem. In This problem is limited to the students vocabulary mastery, students grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text are still low.

1.4 Problem Formulation
As the writer knows the background of this research, the formulation of the problem is presented as follow;
1)        Is there positive and significant correlation between students vocabulary mastery with students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text?
2)        Is there positive and significant correlation between students’ grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text?
3)        Are there positive and significant correlations between students’ vocabulary mastery, student’s grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text?

1.5 Research objective
The objectives of this research are:
1)   The writer wants to know there is positive and significant correlation between students vocabulary mastery with students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.
2)   The writer wants to know there is positive and significant correlation between students’ grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.
3)   The writer wants to know there are positive and significant correlation between students’ vocabulary mastery, students’ grammar mastering phrase formation and students’ reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.



1.6 Research Scope
The subject of the research is the students of the tenth class of SMA state 2 of Metro. The object of the research is the correlation between students’ vocabulary mastery, students’ grammar mastering phrase formation and students’ reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text. The time of this research is in academic year 2011/2012 and this research will be done at SMA state 2 of Metro.

1.7 Research Benefit
1. For the students
To give motivate to the student that learning to know mastery of vocabulary and grammar phrase formation in reading comprehension.
1.        For the teacher
To inform the teacher that teach reading comprehension to analyze of phrase should  be started by teach many vocabularies and grammar phrase formation.








CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Previous Research Overview
The first previous research was conducted by Ikah, entitled “The Correlation between Students Achievement in Vocabulary and Reading Ability”. The result of the research showed that there is a significant correlation between the students’ achievement in vocabulary and reading ability. This result is obtained from the computation of the correlation between the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in expressing past activities in writing applied to the sample is 0.8107. The critical value of the Pearson r with the 5 % significant level is 0.393. It means that the result obtained from the computation is greater than its critical value. Therefore, I conclude that the correlation between the two variables above is significant.

The second previous research is conducted by Fahliarmi”The correlation between students vocabulary mastery and their reading comprehension ability of narrative stories at the eight grade of SMP N 1 Rumbia Central Lampung. Vocabulary mastery is a total number of vocabularies that mastered by the student. Reading comprehension ability of narrative stories is an ability of student to understand and comprehend some text of narrative stories. This research was done at SMP N 1 Rumbia Central Lampung. It was held on January 5, 2009 until February 25, 2009. The population this research was the whole student of eight grade of SMP N 1 Rumbia Central Lampung academic tear 2008/2009. The total of the whole student was 240 students and divided into 6 classes. Meanwhile, the sample of this research was taken from part of population of the subject that would be represented of the whole population. The writer used 45 students as a sample by using stratified random sampling technique.

The difference between those two above previous research from this research is the population and sample. They are let’s looking at next page:
1)      Ikah have 123 students they are of IPA I, IPA II, IPS I, and IPS II, that placed on second year of MAN II Bekasi. From those classes the writer took one class of class IPS II they are 40 students as an experiment class and also as sample of this study. The percentage of the sample in this research is 33%.
2)      Fahliarmi haveThe total of the whole student was 240 students and divided into 6 classes. Meanwhile, the sample of this research was taken from part of population of the subject that would be represented of the whole population. The writer used 45 students as a sample by using stratified random sampling technique.
3)      In this research the population is in the tenth class of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2009/2010. There are five classes of the second year students: each of them consists of 40, 40, 40, 40, 40 students, and the total number of the population is 200. In this research, there were five classes of the tenth class of SMA Negeri2 Metro academic year 2009/2010. Each class consists of 40 students. All students of eleventh class were 200. It meant that I had to take one class because purposive sampling technique was used. So, I took 40 students from class VII B. It was based on the consideration that I took the objects 20% from the total number of the population.

2.2. Theoretical Review
The researcher takes some definition to support the research as follow:
2.2.1 Definition of Vocabulary
It is obvious that vocabulary is very important in learning a language, especially English, because the English vocabulary is extremely large and varies as well. Therefore, it is highly essential for English teachers to help their students in mastering vocabulary. Norbert Schmitt gave the definition of vocabulary as follows. Vocabulary is a basis of a language: it is very important to be mastered first. We cannot speak well and understand written materials if we do not master it. Norbert Schmitt stated that no matter how successfully the sound of the foreign language is mastered, without words to express the wider range of meanings, communication in a foreign language just cannot happen in any meaningful way.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines .vocabulary means all the words that someone know, learn of uses, or the words that are typically used when talking about particular subject or a list of words with the explanations of their meanings in a book for learning foreign language. Webster has three definition of vocabulary as follows:
1.        A list or collection of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or define.
2.        A list or collection of terms or codes available for use.
3.        A sum or stock of word employed by a language group, individual or work or in a field knowledge.

In some literature, we found the meaning of vocabulary. There are some definitions of vocabulary. A.S. Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. States that vocabulary is:
1.             Total number of words which (with rules for combining them) make up a language.
2.             (Range of) words known to, or used by, a person, in a trade, profession, etc.

Vocabulary is considered as the most important part in learning a language. It is impossible for the students to read, write and speak a foreign language without having enough knowledge of the vocabulary. Learning the new vocabulary does not only mean memorizing the form of the word but also understand its meaning.

Vocabulary varies in the four skills of language, listening, writing, reading and speaking. Generally, a student will absorb listening and speaking vocabulary before coming to the reading and writing vocabulary. But in real situation, the process may change, especially in foreign language teaching. Reading vocabulary may become the first stage before processing the speaking and listening vocabulary. According to the basis of frequency, vocabulary can be divided into two kinds; there are high frequency vocabulary and low frequency vocabulary.
a.     High frequency vocabulary consists of words that are used very often in normal language, use in all four skills and across the full range of situation of use. High frequency vocabulary consists of 2000 word families, which are about 87% of the running words in formal written text and more than 95% of the words in informal spoken texts.
b.        The low frequency vocabulary on the other hand, covers only small proportion of the running words of a continuous text, it means that low frequency vocabulary is rarely, used in common activity of English language. This group includes well over 100.000 word families. I.S.P Nation calls those vocabularies as motivated vocabulary and unmotivated vocabulary. Motivated (active) vocabulary consists of all the words we need to use and feel no reluctance in using in our everyday life.
While, the unmotivated (passive) vocabulary can be divided into two groups:
1.        Words which are only partly understood and are not well known enough to use actively, and
2.        Words which are not needed in daily communication.

From the explanation above, we can conclude that vocabulary is all the words used in daily activities, partly while, passive vocabulary is all the words recognized and understood, and not necessarily used. Well, they must be familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of the word. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill. For this reason, a person who wants to be able to communicate in a certain language has to master the vocabulary of that language for the first time. Vocabulary as one of the language aspects have to be learned when people are learning a language. Good mastery of vocabulary is important for anyone who learns the language used in listening, speaking, writing, and reading besides grammar.

2.2.2        Definition of Grammar Mastering Phrase Formation.
1)        Definition of Grammar Mastery
Talking about the definition of grammar, there would probably be as many definitions as the number of linguists who manages to define it. Those definitions, however, essentially convey the same idea. Cook and Suter (1980:1) state:
“Grammar is a set of rules by which people speak or write. These rules are not stood consciously, and if you asked people what the rules of English grammars were, they would probably offer one or two or say they did not know. The reason is that the rules we refer to are those that hardly anyone ever thinks about but which allow people to use their language easily and naturally most of the time”.

The statement indicates that grammar is a set of rules derived from a language; rules that most of its native speakers rarely care about. However, these enable them to communicate each other without creating misunderstanding and misinterpretation. They commonly do not realize that when they express themselves through writing or speaking, what they write or speak have patterns and they keep subconsciously applying the patterns in their communication.

Meanwhile in the context of education especially in the learning and teaching of foreign language, grammar is usually considered as one of the language components other that vocabulary and sound system which students should acquire. As foreign language learners commonly do not have much direct exposure to the language, mastering language components is one of the ways to support the mastery of foreign language skills. Grammar is enables people to understand the very words they are reading as well as to speak or write words or sentences of their own.This means that even in order to be able to read a piece of text in a foreign language well, we should know the grammar of that language.

Knowing grammar means understanding what the text means correctly. In addition, the role of grammar becomes more important when we have to speak or write in a foreign language. When we read, even though we keep thinking, we do not produce or writing. Rather, we merely try to understand and interpret the text. When we speak or write, on the other hand, we have to produce utterances or writing and at the same time try to get our message understood so that we can get the intended response. Considering those definitions and explanations, the writer comes into conclusion that grammar is a set of rules derived from a language that enable people to understand what they read or to be creative in constructing sentences or expressions when they communicate.

2)        The Definition of Phrase Formation.
Phrase is a group of word that has a certain meaning but not a sentence.
There are three kinds of phrase that;
A)    Noun Phrase
The head of noun phrase is noun. How to form noun phrase?
1.      by adding an adjective
2.      By adding article
3.      By adding possessive pronoun
4.      By adding adverb after head
5.      By combining two nouns with –of.
B)    Verb Phrase
The head of verb phrase is verb. The form a verb phrase;
1. By adding a modal before verb
2. By adding –be
3. by adding has/have before a verb
4. by using adverb of frequency.
C) Adjective Phrase
The head of adjective phrase is adjective, usually formed by combining an adverb before adjective.
D)    Adverb Phrase
The head of adverb phrase is preposition. Basically, adverb phrase is formed by combining preposition and noun.

2.2.3 The Definition of Reading comphrension and Descriptive Text.
1) Definition of Reading comphrension.
Reading comprehension is essentially the ability to understand what has been read. There is little point in being able to pronounce the words on a page if the words mean nothing to you. You can probably read "Sniptops are finbuggle" because you can decode the sounds in the words, but you can't comprehend it because two of the words are nonsense. People with good reading comprehension use several strategies that help them understand the text.

2) Definition of Descriptive Text.
Describing is medium for communication, it helps us connect to others, and there reader must understand the purpose of our describe, what we going to inform or to sell. In writing, there are several type of writing from, such as descriptive, argumentative, narrative and etc. In descriptive text the writer describes a particular person, place or thing (Agustien, 2005: 15) argumentative the writer argues about her opinion or the same ideas with the writer. The writer arranges some events and tells it to the reader. It relates a connected series of events either real or functional. Descriptive text, in this study is taken into consideration because descriptive text dominates the material for the student of senior high school is naturally descriptive text.

When we describe someone or something, we give descriptive text to our leader. To make the descriptive text as real as possible, we must observe and record specific details that appeal to our reader senses, such as sight, hearing, tested, smell and touch. To describe, writer must notice that their senses tell them. Noticing is only half of describing; however the other half is finding the language to record the fine discriminations their sense. To do this, writers develop simple present tense that is rich, suitable, and specific enough to allow them to describe what they observed with accuracy and precision.

Here in example of a descriptive text taken book from Look Ahead 1, (2007:155)
“Among pet, I like dogs the best because they are name animals and they can be trained as a man’s friend. I have a wonderful dog. I name him Volvo. You know, Volvo is a male dog. He is a pomerani dog and is about … uhm.. Two years old. That’s right, two years old.”
                                                                                                       
From the example of the descriptive text above, the reader can imagine the situation and condition of a pet.Meanwhile, descriptive scours in every type of text, novel and short story writer describe characters, place, sense and action. Many college freshman essays begin with descriptive for their effectiveness. It means that many writers choose descriptive text, because it is effective or it is easy for them to describe that they want to say. Good description begins with good observation: dividing up the details according to a pattern. Thus, descriptive text is a type of writing which describes person, place or thing clearly and presents dealing with a pattern that help reader understands what the writer explains.

2.3      Thinking Framework
2.3.2        A correlation between student’s vocabulary mastery with students reading comphrehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.

The reason why children find reading, especially toanalyze of phrase in discriptive text and some subject fields difficult because their lack of vocabulary mastering. Whereas in fact of vocabulary is the most important thing in reading skill. Most of us if we find the difficult word, we still just continue our w in the hope that the word we write is not really important or that it’s meaning will become clear later on. But sometimes these word that we passed usually as the key of our reading and understanding. So, looking up the difficult words in dictionary is better for us.

2.3.3        A correlation between students’ grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comphrehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.

Most of students’ still get difficulty to learn grammar mastering in even they havebeen learning it since junior high school. They cant use it properly when they toread text, especially analyze of phrase in discriptive text.The grammar mastery they usedwere still poor. And reading is one of the English skills this is difficult to be mastered. Students need to have an extra exercise to have a good reading ability. By constructing a text expresses their own past experience; hopefully it becomes very helpful for students to have a good skill in reading. So, if the student is not mastery ofgrammar mastering phrase formation, that’s difficult toanalyze of phrase in discriptive text.

2.3.4        A correlations between students ’ vocabulary mastery, student’s grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comphrehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.

Students’ achievement in vocabulary is very important. Because, I think if the student have a little vocabulary will difficult to understanding about grammar phrase and analyzetion of phrase in discriptive text in reading. Especially for regular and irregular verb in vocabulary achievement to express their past activity in reding. Look at those; phrase is important in expressing past activity in grammar and reading ability. So, the student must mastery grammar phrae formations if they want improve their skill in past reading. Because that, I find a closed correlation from three aspect in learning English namely, vocabulary achievement, mastery of grammar phrase fomation and can to analyze of phrase in discriptive text. I expect students will recognize and realize that mastering grammar, especially phrase, is useful to have a good skill in reading.

2.4. Hypothesis
Based on the problems above, the working hypothesis of the study can be stated as follows;
1)      There is positive and significant correlation between the student’s vocabulary mastery with students’ reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.
2)      There is positive and significant correlation between the student’s vocabulary mastery with student’s grammar mastering phrase formation.
3)      There is positive and significant correlation between the student’s vocabulary mastery, student’s grammar mastering phrase formation and students’ reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text.






CHAPTER III
METHOD OF RESEARCH
3.1 Research Design
In this research, the researcher using ex post facto to know there is correlation between vocabulary mastery, simple present tense mastery, and students’ writing ability in descriptive text. Ex post facto is the research that is done from the fact condition. The research will be done by as follow:
1)        The research take the data from pre-test by giving some question in multiple choices. But before that the researcher will give little explanation about vocabulary and grammar in phrase formation and then how to analyze phrase in descriptive text.
2)        The researcher will give post-test by giving exercise to answer of question and to find out about some phrase in descriptive text.

3.2 Research Variables
There are three variables on this study that can be explained as follow:
1.    Dependent Variable
(Y) The reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in descriptive text.
2.    Independent Variable
(X1) Students’ vocabulary mastery.
(X2) students’ grammar mastering phrase formation


3.2.1   Conceptual Definition of the Students Vocabulary Mastery.
Taken from conclusion of variable discussed in theoretical review that vocabulary is all the words used in daily activities, partly while, passive vocabulary is all the words recognized and understood, and not necessarily used. Well, they must be familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of the word. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill. For this reason, a person who wants to be able to communicate in a certain language has to master the vocabulary of that language for the first time. Vocabulary as one of the language aspects have to be learned when people are learning a language. Good mastery of vocabulary is important for anyone who learns the language used in listening, speaking, writing, and reading besides grammar.

3.2.2 Operational Definition of the Students Vocabulary Mastery.
Before collecting the data, I give some question as the students test, to know how far the students achievement of vocabulary and mastery of grammar. To make sure that the test valid enough, so I look into Competence Based Curriculum first. This curriculum states that the students are supposed to make a description composition thus the content of the test/story offered in the research is valid enough. I will also make an interview to the students about the difficulties they find in producing words.



3.2.3 Conceptual Definition of the Students’ Grammar Phrase Formation.
“Grammar is a set of rules by which people speak or write. These rules are not stood consciously, and if you asked people what the rules of English grammars were, they would probably offer one or two or say they did not know. The reason is that the rules we refer to are those that hardly anyone ever thinks about but which allow people to use their language easily and naturally most of the time”.Knowing grammar means understanding what the text means correctly. In addition, the role of grammar becomes more important when we have to speak or write in a foreign language. And then the conceptual definition of phrase is Phrase is a group of word that has a certain meaning but not a sentence.

3.2.4 Operational Definition of Students’ Grammar Phrase Formation.
In operational student grammar phrase formation, I give to students’ paper test which consist ten questions of multiple choice type. To make sure that the test valid enough, so I look into Competence Based Curriculum first. This curriculum states that the students are supposed to learn about phrase formation.


3.2.5 Conceptual Definition of Reading Comprehensionto Analyze of Phrase in Discriptive Text.

Reading comprehension is essentially the ability to understand what has been read. There is little point in being able to pronounce the words on a page if the words mean nothing to you. You can probably read "Sniptops are finbuggle" because you can decode the sounds in the words, but you can't comprehend it because two of the words are nonsense. People with good reading comprehension use several strategies that help them understand the text. And then Describing is medium for communication, it helps us connect to others, and there reader must understand the purpose of our describe, what we going to inform or to sell. In writing, there are several type of writing from, such as descriptive, argumentative, narrative and etc. In descriptive text the writer describes a particular person, place or thing (Agustien, 2005: 15) argumentative the writer argues about her opinion or the same ideas with the writer.

3.2.6 Operational Definition of the Students’ Reading Comprehension to Analyze of Phrase in Discriptive Text.

Before collecting the data, I select descriptive text as the students test, to know how far the students achievement of reading and mastery of grammar. To make sure that the test valid enough, so I look into Competence Based Curriculum first. This curriculum states that the students are supposed to make a disruptive composition thus the content of the test/story offered in the research is valid enough. I will also make a question to the students about the difficulties they find out some phrase in producing descriptive text.

3.3 Research Population and Sample
3.3.1 Research Population
The population of this research is the tenth class of SMA state 2 of Metro in Academic year 2009/2010. There are five classes of the second year students: each of them consists of four classes, severally class consist 40 students, and the total of the population are 160 students.

3.3.2 Research Sample
In this research will takes two classes for sample and the writer use will stratify random sampling technique. Populations of research will consist of 160 students and divide into 4 classes. There are class distributed based on the rank. There are 2 class of high ability, and 2 class of low ability.

From population in mode stratification as follow:
The high ability 40 students (one class)
The low ability 40 students (one class)
To know the whole characteristic of population the writer will take 18 students of each randomly.
The classification as follow:
The high ability 20 students
The low ability 20 students
            40 students
From the population, the writer will takes 40 students as samples in this research.

3.4 Research Instrument
In this research I used a test method as the instrument. Test is a set of questions or other practices or devices used to measure the skill, intelligence, ability and talent of an individual or a group. The type of test used here was achievement test. Achievement tests attempt to measure what individual has learned – his or her present level of performance (Best, 1981: 193). To get the empirical data of the students’ mastery of phrase and their abilities to analyze phrase in discriptive text in reading, I administered three kinds of tests, namely Vocabulary Test,Grammar Test, and reading Test. Both of the tests were in question read form.

In order to collect the data accurately on the correlation between vocabulary mastery, simple present tense mastery, student’s grammar mastering phrase formation and students reading comprehension to analyze of phrase in discriptive text, the researcher gives a test to the students. Type of the test will be objective tests (multiple choices) which consist of twenty five questions and descriptive essay test. In each question there are four options, they are a, b, c, and d. It is done to know the students’ vocabulary mastery and their reading comprehension to analyze of phrase formation.
1.      Post-test
This test is given after the treatments are conducted. The type of this test the first is multiple choices with four options, they are a, b, c and d. the second is essay to find some phrase.





3.4.1 Specification Table of Instrument
No
Aspect
Indicator
Domain
Number of Question
1

Vocabulary

Ø  The students are able mastery   vocabulary in form adverb, noun, adjective and verb.
Cognitive
I.A
(1 – 15)
2





Grammar Phrase Formation




Ø  The students are able to different of noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase and adjective phrase.
Cognitive
I.B
(1 - 10)
3
Reading Comprehension

Ø  The students are able to analyze and to find out about phrase formation and so to grouped phrase according with its kind in descriptive text.

Cognitive
II

3.4.2 Validity of the test
A test is valid if it measure what is supposed to measure. Nurkancana (1983: 123) state” The validity means an accurate test which is observed from the mission of the test”. It is supported by Gay (1990: 128) that validity is the degree to which a test a measures what it is supposed to measure. From the two statements mean that the test can be said valid if the test is quite representative materials that are given.

There are several type of validity, those are: content validity, construct valid concurrent validity, and predictive validity. In doing the validity of the test, the writer will use content validity. Gay says” content validity is the degree to which is text measure an intended content area” Gay (1990: 129). This instrument will arrange based on the curriculum by making table of specification (kisi-kisisoal).

To determine its validity, the validity of the instrument is content and constructs validity. The questionnaire will be constructed based on the theory, definition and explanation of simple present tense and descriptive text. Construct validity of the tests, the researcher formulated the tests by the nature and the concern of simple present tense and descriptive text.

3.4.3 Reliability of the test
Reliability means dependability or trustworthiness. “Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measure whatever it measures” Gay (1990: 135). Reliability means that an instrument can be trusted as an instrument to collect data.
To know the of the instruments test the writer will use split-half reliability, and the writer will conducts the steps as follow:
1)   Distribute the test to 10 students out of sample the written take 3 students of high ability, 4 students of sufficient ability, 3 students of low ability based on their English daily scores.
2)   Divide into odd items test (variable X) even items test (variable Y).
3)   Calculate between odd items and even items by using Product Moment.

Formula:
r =
                                    Note:
                                    r = correlation between X and Y
                                    X = result test of the odd items
                                    Y = result test of the even items
                                    N = total number of sample
                                                                                    (Ahmad’s handous, 2007: 5)

4)    Find the whole reliability coefficient, the writer will use spearman Brown.                                                                                                            
Formula:
                          Rtotal test =  henceforth rgg =
                                    Note:
Rgg             = the full coefficient reliability of text
rxy                = The coefficient correlation between X and Y.
2 and 1     = the consonant number.

And then, consult the result with the criteria reliability as follow.
                           0, 90 = 1, 00 high reliability
                           0, 50 = 0.89 sufficient reliability
                           0, 00 = 0, 49 low reliability
                                                            (Malo, 1985: 139)

3.5 Data Collecting Technique
Although I thought the random sampling technique was the best way to take the sample, at last I used the purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling technique is a judgment sampling in which sample element judged to be representative or chosen from the population. This technique was chosen because it was hard for me to enter each class, took some students and gathered them as samples in random. I worried to disturb the teaching learning process. Another problem was related to the place. If I used random sampling, he had to find a certain place/class for the respondents to do the test, and I considered that there were small possibilities to get such facility. So finally, I decided to use the purposive sampling technique.

3.6    Data Analysis Technique
In analysis the data, the writer will use the descriptive qualitative research. The data is taking from the student’s mastery in grammar phrase formation and the student’s descriptive text test. In means the writer want to analyze two variables, the phrase as variable X and the descriptive text test as variable Y. Then, the result of scoring of both the researcher and the other were added and divided by two. After the researcher giving the test and finding the result of the test will be taken by using normality test and homogeneity test.  

3.6.1 Normality test
Basrowi (2010:66) “The purpose of normality test is to know the distribution data following normaly distribution or no”. Actually, normality test can be done by three manners, they are; using statistik parametic test (Frequence or descriptive test) and statistik non-parametic test (Kolmogorov Smirnov test). But all of them should be correlated with the research which is done. Thare are three manners to do normality test for data. Two manners in the first part include to analysis statistik parametic test, while the third manner include to normality ststistik non-parametic. One of that menners is “Normality Test Part One”, to do nomality test use analysis statistik parametic. This test can be done use Frequence or Descriptiveanalysis. To know whether a variable data distribute in normal way or not, can be done a manner that take anote of Skweness and Kurtosis score of each. Another manner is compare the Skweness score with Std. Error of Skweness, or compare the Kurtosis score with Std. Error of Kurtosis.
Ratio Score     :

3.6.2 Homogeneity test
Basrowi (2010:98) “Homogenity is a measurement that can bu used to decide various data. There are many manners that can be used to measure the homogenity a data, they are; use analysis Explore test and analysis One-Way ANOVA test. In this case will explain the One-Way ANOVA test only. This analysis is used to decide average two or more different group factually.
If we assumption that:
Ho       = three groups have same average score.
H1       = three groups have different average score.
So, critical test of hopotesis is as follow:
1) If F count <F table, so Ho is received;
2) If F count >F table, so Ho is refused.

Output Test of Homogenity of Variances can be used to know whether three samples has same variences.
If hypotesis that is used is :
Ho       = variences sample is not homogeneous.
H1       = variences sample is homogeneous.
The stipulation of take a decision, as follow:
1) If probability or Sig. score < 0,05 so Ho is received;
2) If probability or Sig. score > 0,05 so H1 is refused.


3.6.3 Hypothesis Test
The researcher will use hypothesis test is to know if the hypothesis that proposed will be accepted or refused. The hypothesis has criteria as follow:
1)      Ho is accepted if thinking pairs share method is equal or more effective (the hypothesis proposed are proved).
2)      Rounded Rectangle:  Ha is accepted if think pairs share method is less effective (the hypothesis are not proved).
rxy =












REFERENCES

Arikunto, Suharsimi, 1997. ProsedurePenelitian. Jakarta: RineikaCipta.

Aguestien, Helana, I.R. 2005.Let’s Talk. Bandung: PakarKarya.

Brown, H. D. 2004. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practice. New York: Longman.

Cook J. and W. Suter. 1980. The Scope of Grammar. New York: McGraw – Hill.

Dangerfield, L., et al. 1990. Making Extended Writing Test Less Subjective in At TheChalkface: Practical Extended Techniques in Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold.

Malo, M. 1905. MetodePenelitionSosial, Jakarta: Kurnia

Nurkuncana, Wayan, 1983. EvaluasiPendidikan. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.